Regular proceedings on the merits generally take 12 to 18 months.
If there is a need for swift relief (a showing of urgency and irreparable harm), summary proceedings can lead to a decision within two to four months, on average. In some cases, it is also possible to apply for relief on an ex parte (unilateral) basis. Accelerated proceedings on the merits (so-called cease-and-desist proceedings), where available, can lead to a decision on the merits in two to six months' time.
At the appellate level, proceedings take much longer (18 to 24 months or more depending on the judicial backlog).
The costs of litigation will depend on the complexity of the case. On average, the costs range between EUR 15,000 and EUR 55,000 or more.